Best Negative Ion Generator

Do you wish to clean up the pollutants and viruses in your home’s air? Is pollen season causing you to have a nasty case of allergies? If you answered yes, you should get the finest negative ion generator.

Negative ionizers purify the air and provide a variety of health benefits instead of inhaling impure, contaminated air inside your home. Negative ion generators will benefit your life in a variety of ways, from preserving your lungs and increasing your immune system to assisting you in sleeping better.

Breathing in negative ions, like the air at the beach, is beneficial. And, at the levels created by the ionizers, will swiftly and efficiently clean interior air pollution while avoiding the health hazards associated with ozone.

There are so many negative ion generators in the market. In this article, we have compiled the list of best negative ion generators after researching the whole internet. All the important factors have been considered thoroughly while compiling this list. So, with no further ado, let’s get started!

Contents

Best Negative Ion Generators on the Market

Best Negative Ion Generator

Best Negative Ion Generator: Reviews

Ivation 5-in-1 HEPA Air Purifier & Ozone Generator

The Ivation IVADGOZHEPA is a fantastic alternative for enjoying the advantages of ionic air. By keeping allergens to a minimum, this versatile gadget guarantees that you always get a breath of fresh air. Furthermore, the design is admirable, adding to the elegance of your space.

This unit’s coverage is nothing short of amazing. It’s little, yet it covers a large area, ranging from 500 to 3,700 square feet. What’s even better is that you wouldn’t need many devices to improve your home’s air quality. It releases a million negative ions each second, which eliminates smells and allergies.

The gadget also employs oxygen and an electric current to boost ozone generation in the room, allowing it to efficiently cleanse and generate ionic air. The ozone helps to combat smells and allergies that can be damaging to your health. Additionally, the generators in it assist in dissipating negative ions in the air, which may instantly enhance your mood and make you feel more cheerful, hopeful, and healthy.

Features

All-in-One Package

Rather than squandering money and space on much professional air filtration equipment, this one combines all of today’s most popular filtering treatments into a single unit. It combats smells, eliminates dust, sterilizes the air, avoids allergic responses, and fills anyplace up to 3,700 square feet with a wonderfully ‘clean’ aroma.

Ozone Technology for Cleaning

A chemical reaction happens when UV rays and oxygen come into contact, providing a refreshing atmosphere similar to that which occurs after a rainstorm. This ozone generator simulates the same electrical arcing in the interior atmosphere, causing molecules to attach to airborne particles, eliminating smells, and improving mood.

Generation of Negative Ions

Ionization enhances ambiance by targeting dust, mold spores, smoking smells, and other contaminants comparable to waterfalls, lightning, ocean waves, and other natural occurrences. Individuals breathe better, cleaner, and safer all day long when there are fewer irritants in their environment.

Operation with No Hassles

The unit’s handy dial controls enable you to set the speed levels [low/medium/high] for the ozone sanitizer and UV ionizer individually once inserted into a conventional wall socket. Depending on your specific demands, use both powered or just one of the functions to get your optimum atmospheric conditions.

Easy To Clean

The totally detachable ozone plates and fan grill, which can be sanitized with warm water and a dab of soap, make cleaning your purifier a breeze. The fan blades and needlepoint ionizer, for example, may be cleaned clean with a cotton swab. HEPA and other filters should be replaced once a year or as needed (replacements sold separately).

Pros
  • 5in1 Air Filter
  • It is easy to clean
  • It is very easy to operate
  • It has a removable fan grill
  • It comes in a wooden casing
Cons
  • Not very responsive customer service

AirTamer A320

Next, we have the Air Tamer A320, which is a portable choice for you. This portable air purifier is one of our favorites since it has multiple high-functioning filters. It emits a continuous stream of negative ions to keep your house free of airborne contaminants of all kinds.

The cutting-edge technology used to produce negative ions, which efficiently combat airborne contaminants and offer clean air, stood out to us. This gadget creates a protective barrier against all types of dangerous pollutants by emitting a 3-foot wide orbit. As a result, you do not need to be concerned about coverage.

When it comes to negative ion generators, the AirTamer A320 is one of a kind. It’s a wearable personal air purifier that cleans the air in a three-foot radius using cutting-edge technology. The gadget produces two million negative ions every second, which pushes pollutants like smoke and smog out of the path so you can breathe pure air even while driving.

The AirTamer A310 is powered by a rechargeable battery that lasts 150 hours on a single charge. You may carry this portable gadget around your neck and avoid pollen and allergy season since it comes with an adjustable lanyard. It also boasts a low-noise operation and requires little maintenance.

Furthermore, this model is incredibly easy to use because you won’t have to worry about replacing filters every few months to keep the gadget cleaning the air. Rather than utilizing filters, this gadget employs an electrostatic purification mechanism that releases millions of negative ions, ensuring that you only breathe clean air.

Features

Goodbye Filters

Say goodbye to filter replacement; the AirTamer A320 employs cutting-edge air purification technology. Using electrostatic purification, the A320 releases millions of negative ions into the air, driving harmful pollutants out of your sphere of clean, breathable air.

Take It With You

Their A320 model comes with a replaceable, proprietary conductive lanyard that is adjustable with a break-away connector for extra safety. And a replaceable Negative Ion Emitter Cartridge to keep your A320 cleaning at peak performance. Wear it around your neck or clip it to your clothes for a sphere of breathable air wherever you go.

Rechargeable

With the AirTamer A320, replacing batteries is no longer necessary; this portable personal air purifier runs for 150+ hours on a single charge, providing your protection from airborne toxins.

Breathe Cleaner Safer Air

The AirTamer A320 is the most advanced personal air purifier on the market, emitting healthy negative ions and pushing airborne pollutants away from your breathing zone with cutting-edge technology. AirTamer’s Electrostatic Purification radiates a 3-foot orbit of safer air in any direction, creating a sphere of protection.

Pros
  • Exceptional output
  • Long-lasting battery
  • Operation with little noise
  • Includes a lanyard that is both safe and adaptable
  • Energy-saving mode of operation
  • The size is small
  • A carbon filter with a long life span
  • Various modes
Cons
  • There isn’t a clip included

New Comfort HE-500

The New Comfort HE-500 ozone air purifier generates ozone to eliminate smells and destroy germs and viruses in any room. Although the item features an auto-shutdown feature, it should not be utilized in populated areas. The hotel, restaurant, or other business that requires a clean and healthy atmosphere can benefit from this commercial-grade air purifier.

The HE-500 is designed for professional use and will “Knock away scents at their source.” It ozone cleans by binding to airborne contaminants and breaking down the odor’s molecular structure through oxidation, neutralizing the odor-producing pollutant.

The ozone output of this New Comfort ozone generator is an amazing 8,500 mg/hr. The unit comes with an on/off indication light and a 120-minute auto cutoff timer. Because this device should not be utilized in populated environments, this is excellent.

Features

Easy To Use

Place this device in the chosen location, set the desired setting, and then exit the area. When you get back, double-check that the unit timer has successfully turned off the machine. Allow time for ventilation before entering the room. Take pleasure in your new odor-free space!

Powerful And Quiet

With an 80 CFM fan, you can clean a maximum of 2500 square feet. Only 35 decibels of sound are produced (very quiet). It just consumes 46 watts of electricity.

Commercial Quality

The HE-500 produces 4000 mg/hr of Ozone O3, allowing it to cleanse 4500 sq. ft. The Ozone Plate is rated for 5000 hours of continuous usage.

Pros
  • It is durable
  • Has a high-end black finish with stainless steel construction
  • Guarantees 3 years of worry less use
  • It is a lightweight machine
Cons
  • Bit expensive

Mammoth Ion and Ozone Generator

3000A Mammoth Air A handcrafted oil-stained cherry-colored wood box houses this traditional air purifier. To ensure the long-term operation of the air purifier, it comes with a heavy-duty stainless-steel rear cover and internal parts. This deodorizer sterilizer cleans the air using ozone (O3) and may cover up to 2000 square feet.

It’s made for the house and residential usage, and it’ll go well with your existing decor. This ozone generator for household usage features two adjustable control knobs for ozone production and fan speed. By leveraging activated oxygen (O3) technology, the built-in ozone generator and air purifier not only mask bad odors like other air aroma diffusers but also destroy them.

The oxidation process neutralizes Bacteria, viruses, and foul smells, which breaks down their molecular structure. The end effect is a “fresh, clean spring rain scent,” akin to the clean air smell after a rainstorm(nature’s way of purifying the air). When purifying your house, you may now set the ozone amount and airflow speed (noise).

Features

Purification of Natural Ozone

Ozone is a natural oxidizing agent that destroys smoking scents, strong cooking odors, pet urine odors, musty closets, moldy places, and other aromas in about 30 minutes. The ozone air purifier produces O3 using a unique method that combines electricity and oxygen. By breaking down smells, microorganisms, and other contaminants at their source, ozone sanitizes.

Operation Using Two Knobs

Simply place the Ozone Plates in the back, plug in the electrical cord, and turn on the Ionizer Air Purifier once it arrives! There are no remote controls, buttons, or extra steps to complete the operation.

Ion and Ozone are Produced

Ion production is 80000 ions per cubic inch and 360 milligrams per hour. This air humidifier and ionizer’s compact size make it ideal for use at home in the bedroom, kitchen, garage, or anyplace else. The high-quality and strong ionization light makes it ideal for use with our ozone generator in large areas such as offices or commercial spaces.

Pros
  • Adjustable ozone layers
  • 1-year factory warranty
  • It is very simple and easy to use
  • 10-year brand warranty
  • The air is cleaner and more invigorating as a result of this
  • Removes any stale smells from their source
  • It’s aluminum construction ensures that it will last a long time
  • For phones and tablets, there’s a convenient dual built-in charging
Cons
  • Disappointing customer service

Pro Breeze Air Purifier

The Pro Breeze Air Purifier, as the name suggests, uses a 5-in-1 air filtration technology to remove 99.97 percent of airborne contaminants. In addition, it contains a built-in negative ion generator that can be activated with a single switch.

The Pro Breeze 5-in-1 is great for those looking for a high-performance air purifier. It has a five-step filtration system that removes 99.97 percent of toxins from the air you breathe. On top of the negative ionizer, you’ll find a pre-filter, True HEPA filter, cold catalyst, and activated carbon filter.

As a result, it can supply 218metric cubes of clean air every hour and has a coverage area of around 500 square feet, making it perfect for even big spaces. In addition, the clever negative ion generator has three fan settings, automated timers, and a sleep mode for nighttime use. The Pro Breeze 5-in-1 also boasts a user-friendly touch panel that delivers filter replacement notifications if that wasn’t enough.

Features

4 Filtration System

Our air purifiers contain a four-stage filtration technology that can filter particles as fine as 0.3 microns for 99.97 percent of the time. Air travels through a pre-filter, HEPA filter, cold catalyst filter, and active carbon filter to guarantee full air filtration in your house.

Sleep Mode & Quiet Operation

Their air purifiers for the house are built to be quiet but effective. As you sleep, the revolutionary Sleep Mode gradually limits sound and energy production, allowing you to have a restful night’s sleep. You may rest easy knowing that the appliance will switch off gently.

Environmentally Friendly and Energy-efficient

In addition to Sleep Mode, their HEPA air purifier has Smart Timers, which may be configured to turn on or off the air purifier after 1, 2, or 4 hours. We are concerned about both the environment and your utility expenditures!

Pros
  • Products of Excellent Quality
  • The brand with a Customer-First Approach
  • There are over a million satisfied customers all around the world
  • Specializes in Heating & Cooling
Cons
  • Hard to get replacement filters

Can negative ion generators destroy viruses

Factors Considered Before Choosing Best Negative Ion Generator

Area of Coverage

It’s critical to examine which portion of the room you’ll put the negative ion generator in before making a purchase. If you read the product label attentively, you’ll see an estimate of how many square feet the gadget will cover.

This is a significant factor in the ionizer’s operation and performance. Some objects emit over a million negative ions every second, and the strength of their fans helps to disperse them around the room efficiently. It’s best for rooms with a square footage of 500 square feet or more. However, the cost of these gadgets is significantly more than that of standard equipment.

For your convenience, you might choose a smaller, more portable gadget. However, keep in mind that their ion output will be lower than that of the other variants. If you’re using it to create fresh air in a small space, it won’t require more than 1.5 watts, which will be plenty.

Choose a negative ionizer that is appropriate for the location where it will be used. The essential aspect is that your health should never be compromised and that you should only breathe pure air.

Design

If you’re going to install a negative ionizer in your room, you’ll need to think about the design first. This will assist you in ensuring that the size is correct and acceptable for your space.

Choosing one with a tiny footprint is preferable if you want to utilize it in a limited location. If you’re going to use it in your car or bring it with you when traveling, portable ionizers that assist with dust are the ideal option. It is critical to evaluate the space before determining what type of air purifiers would be ideal for you.

Modes

When looking for the finest negative ion generator, look for one that is energy efficient and will help you save money on your bills. It is recommended to purchase ion generators with adjustable settings for this reason.

If you buy a gadget with an in-built sleep mode, for example, you will save a lot of money on your energy expenses. Consequently, choosing a model with many settings is better, as it will help you conserve energy and avoid excessive waste.

Factors Considered Before Choosing Best Negative Ion Generator

Efficiency

The effectiveness of an ionizer is determined by the number of negative ions released per second. The better the air quality of your interior room air, the higher the emission.

A larger emission also indicates how far the negative ions will go in your room and can potentially alter the coverage area of your negative ion generator. As a result, it’s critical to determine whether your device’s efficiency is worth its cost.

Size

This component is sometimes ignored when purchasing negative ion generators, but it is critical because not all customers’ space requirements are the same. You should keep in mind that models come in various sizes, so think about where you’ll keep them and how you’ll install them.

Smaller versions are preferable for households with limited space and vice versa. However, if you want to take it with you on all of your trips, it should be portable enough.

The Level of Noise

There is no denying that a noisy machine is quite bothersome. You can expect the item to function in the background since you bought it to make your life simpler. On a more positive side, the majority of air ionizers operate quietly. This is especially true for any model that does not have a fan.

What Is the Purpose of a Negative Ion Generator

What Is the Purpose of a Negative Ion Generator (Also Known as an Air Ionizer)?

A negative ion generator, also known as an air ionizer or ionic air purifier, is a device that produces millions of negative ions into the air to eliminate contaminants. It has an electrostatic precipitator that generates these ions and blows them into your room using electricity.

Negative ions collide with minuscule, positive airborne particles like dust, pollen, germs, and even pet hair, forming connections. As a result, the freshly created heavy particles either fall to the ground or attach to your furniture’s surface.

Some revolutionary ionizers, on the other hand, have a strong fan as well as HEPA filters. Ionized and heavy particles can be removed from your room using these models.

What Are the Effects of Negative Air Ions on the Human Body?

Although it’s a frequent misconception that all ions are bad for your health, this isn’t the case with negative ions. Negative ions, in contrast to positive ions, have several physical and mental health advantages.

Here are a few of the consequences of negative ion generators to answer any queries you might have:

  • Negative ions eliminate dust, mold, pet dander, pollen, and a variety of other allergens from the air you breathe. Your lungs will be protected from inflammation as a consequence, and your health will improve.
  • Negative ions with a high density can even reduce the number of bacteria and viruses in your house.
  • By eliminating harmful positive particles from the air, negative ions work as natural antidepressants.
  • Anions, according to studies, can considerably increase serotonin levels in the body. This boosts your mood, energy, attention, and sleep quality while also reducing insomnia.
  • Negative ions improve oxygen levels and decrease stress in the body by neutralizing damaging positive radicals in the bloodstream.
  • They also aid in the normalization of respiratory rates as well as the reduction of headaches and blood pressure.

What is the Best Place for a Negative Ion Generator

4 Simple Ways to Check Whether Your Air Purifier Is Working

Because air purifiers purify the air to very microscopic levels, it’s natural to wonder if the equipment is real or if it’s all a ruse. How can you determine whether your air purifier is functioning unless you can see the benefits with your own eyes?

Fortunately, there are a few ways to determine whether or not your purifier is working. Continue reading to discover about four simple strategies to eliminate all of your air purifier worries and fears.

Checking for Airflow

To determine if the air purifier is operating, you should first physically feel a difference in the air quality. Even though this is a simple technique, high-performance air purifiers can quickly eliminate unpleasant smells and even stray pet hair.

Aside from that, your furniture may have a small film of dust on it. If this isn’t the case, or if the results aren’t what you expected, check the airflow of your air purifier.

 All air purifiers use a strong fan to draw in polluted air from your room and blast out clean, pollutant-free air on the other end. Listen to the fan’s operation noise or feel for wind with your hand to see whether it’s working.

For example, if your air purifier is generating a humming noise and you can see the fan moving, you know it’s operating. If your fan is generating too much noise, it is most likely broken, clogged with dust, or in need of a filter replacement.

Keep in mind that your air purifier shouldn’t be overworked when it comes to cleaning your indoor air.  On the other hand, if you can’t see the fan or feel the wind on your palm, the air purifier isn’t operating.

Filtering the Data

Looking at your air purifier’s filter is a simple method to see if it’s working or not. Most air purifiers eliminate all dust from the air by running it through sophisticated HEPA filters or a three-way filtering system.

The air filters accumulate a thick coating of dust particles, mold, pet fur, and other contaminants over time. As a consequence, your air purifier begins to fail or does not clean the air as effectively as it did previously. While some digital air purifiers include an automatic sensor that alerts you when a filter is unclean, you should still check it manually.

This is exceptionally true if you live near a highway or busy street where the air is dirty and dusty. Because your air filter will become dirty much more quickly, you will need to replace it more regularly for your air purifier to work at its best. Furthermore, take in mind that some air purifiers come with more than one filter. Keep a check on such devices regularly. 

Simple Ways to Check Whether Your Negative Ion Generator Is Working

Using an Air Quality Monitor

While a dirty filter may indicate that your air purifier is functioning well, how do you know it is cleaning at the microscopic level?

However, there is a productive solution to this riddle. You may buy an air quality monitor that will test your interior air and serve as a gauge for how well your purifier is working. Although some purifiers include a built-in monitor, you never know how reliable they are.

To begin your monitoring, turn off your purifier for a few minutes and take your initial reading of the air in your room. Before getting a second reading, shut all the windows and turn on your purifier for at least 30 minutes.

If you see a difference in the air quality reading, you may be confident that your air purifier is working properly. On the other hand, some purifiers perform slowly and take longer to get the air quality up to a healthy level. If the reading does not change after a lengthy period, you should get your machine examined regardless of the model.

Using Chemical Test Kits

Using several readily accessible chemical test kits, you may verify your air purifier’s air quality and functionality. These test kits all checked for mildew, pollen, mold, dust mites, and different organic particles.

The chemical kit, like the air quality sensors, requires two different tests to be completed. For the first one, turn off your air purifier for a few hours. Then, follow the directions on the kit to complete the test.

Then,  close all the windows for at least a day and switch on the purifier to get your second reading. You will receive a more exact answer if you wait at least 24 hours instead of testing after a few hours.

The Advantages of Negative Ion Air Purifiers

The Advantages of Negative Ion Air Purifiers

Negative ions help to purify the air.

Many airborne particles, or VOCs, are present in our houses, making breathing difficult. To give these particles a negative charge, negative ions adhere to them. The negative charge attracts the particles to positively charged objects like the floor or television screens, causing them to fall out of the air.

Respiratory difficulties are reduced when the air is cleaner

When the air is cleaner, it is easier to breathe. Particles in the air, such as paint fumes, perfume, and smoke, clog our respiratory passages, making breathing more difficult. Less coughing, fewer allergy symptoms, and improved health are all benefits of having fewer particles in the air.

Our bodies become more energetic as a result of negative ions

Negative ions have rejuvenating and invigorating biological processes in our bodies. There’s a reason why we feel so happy after a nice rain or when we’re near a river.

We become more productive as our energy levels rise

We tend to feel groggier when we remain inside or spend a lot of time in front of a device. This is because computer screens emit positive ions, which deplete negative ions in the environment. In addition, indoor environments have low quantities of negative ions in general.

Negative ions improve mental function and focus

According to studies, those exposed to greater quantities of negative ions score better on exams than those who are not. This is because negative ions help the brain get more oxygen.

Different Types of Negative Ion Generators

Different Types of Ionizers

Ionizers come in a number of different forms. This includes the following:

Bipolar Ionization

Bipolar ionization is a technique for creating both positive and negative air ions. It’s frequently used in conjunction with other equipment, such as HVAC systems. Because bipolar ionization is a relatively new concept, there aren’t many studies on it.

Fans with an Ionizer

A fan circulates air via revolving blades. This is useful for boosting room ventilation. Ionizing settings are available on some fans. These machines circulate and improve air movement while emitting negative ions. 

Ionizer and Air Purifier

A device that eliminates hazardous particles from the air is known as an air purifier. It’s also referred to as:

  • Air purifier for the room
  • Air purifier on wheels
  • Sanitizer for the air

Air purifiers purify the air by using a filter and a fan. An air purifier, unlike an ionizer, can effectively remove dust and pollen. It’s frequently advised for asthmatics and allergy sufferers. Ionizer technology is also included in some air purifiers. This implies that the equipment emits negative ions while cleaning the air. Related study: Effects of Indoor Air Purifiers on Children with Asthma

What are Negative Ion Generators, and How Do They Work

Frequently Asked Questions

What are Negative Ions, and How Do They Work?

Negative oxygen atoms, often known as ions, are produced by a negative ion air purifier. The ions are subsequently released into the atmosphere by the air purifier. Negative ions are found in abundance around large amounts of flowing water, such as waterfalls and rivers. They are also prevalent after a rainy day.

Negative ions are odorless, tasteless, and invisible. Your body, on the other hand, can detect an abundance. Negative ions are responsible for the feeling you experience when you arrive at a beach or waterfall. It’s energetic and refreshing.

Negative ion levels are, on the other hand, lower indoors than outdoors. That’s when air purifiers for the house come in helpful! Ionic air purifiers mimic the exhilarating sensation of being near a waterfall in the comfort of your own home. Here are five reasons why negative ion air purifiers like the AirSense are good for your health.

What is the Best Place for a Negative Ion Generator?

For best diffusion, keep your negative ion generator in an open area. Make sure the ionizing surface isn’t facing any walls or objects and that no metal items are nearby.

Can ionizers destroy viruses?

According to Trusted Source, negative ions can inhibit viral development. Another scientific review in 2020 According to Trusted Source, ozone, which is created by ionizers, can inactivate viruses in the air and on surfaces. Ozone is a colorless gas generated when ions interact with other particles. It renders viruses inactive by causing damage to their genetic material and membranes. Related study: Ionizing air affects influenza virus infectivity and prevents airborne-transmission

People have begun installing ionizers in businesses and restaurants in response to the COVID-19 outbreak. The goal is to enhance air quality while lowering levels of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.

Is it safe to leave it on for an extended period of time?

You are free to use the ionizer for as long as you like. However, when you are not in the room,  it is advised that you turn it off to save money on power costs. It will also assist in extending the life of your gadget.

What Are the Signs That a Negative Ion Generator Isn’t Working?

If your negative ionizer is functioning properly, you will notice a significant reduction in unpleasant odors in your home and will be able to breathe much easier than previously. A heavier dust coating, comprised of heavyweight airborne particles, may also appear on your flooring or furniture.

You may also buy a chemical test kit or an air quality monitor to keep an eye on your indoor air quality.

Is There a Risk of Negative Ions Having Negative Side Effects?

Negative ions have no negative consequences for your health. Instead, they boost your health, immune system, and even your emotional well-being, as previously said.

Is Ozone Produced by a Negative Ion Generator?

Although negative ion generators emit some ozone, practically all of them are extensively tested to ensure that the quantity produced is less than 0.1 ppm. As a result, neither your health nor the environment is harmed by these devices.

Is it safe for pets to use negative ion generators?

Negative ion generators are completely safe for your pets, just like they are for you.

What is the difference between a medical-grade HEPA filter and a regular HEPA filter?

Using a medical-grade air purifier within your house is the key to getting fresh, crisp, and clean air. These devices are most commonly utilized in hospital areas where infections and toxins may easily spread via the air. But what makes this particular purifier so effective?

The filter holds the key to the solution. A HEPA filter, which is the standard specified by the US Department of Energy, is used in a decent air purifier. A HEPA filter must capture 99.97 percent of pollutants with a diameter of 0.3 microns. Dust, dust mites, pet dander, mold spores, and other particles fall into this category.

Conclusion

This is it! These were the best negative ion generators in the market for you. We hope that after reading our list of the best negative ion generators, you will be able to make a better decision as a result of it. But, before we call it a day, we’d like to share a few of our personal favorites.

Overall, we chose the Ivation 5-in-1 HEPA Air Purifier & Ozone Generator as our favorite. The Stainless Steel New Comfort HE-500 Negative Ion Generator is a fantastic choice if you want a negative ion generator that is both easy to operate and robust.

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